Treaty Land Entitlement

Find out about the Treaty Land Entitlement process and settlement agreements in Canada.

Treaty Land Entitlement process

First Nations who did not receive all the land they were entitled to under treaties signed by the Crown and First Nations, can file a Treaty Land Entitlement (TLE) claim with the Government of Canada. TLE settlement agreements are negotiated between First Nations and the Government of Canada, typically with the participation of provincial/territorial governments. The federal government must adhere to treaty obligations to provide the promised amount of reserve land to treaty First Nations.

Generally, a TLE settlement agreement specifies an amount of land that a First Nation may either purchase on a willing buyer-willing seller basis, or select from unoccupied Crown land, or both in some cases, within an agreed to acquisition or selection area.

Once purchased or selected, the First Nation may submit a proposal to the Government of Canada for the land to be added to the First Nation's reserve under the Additions to Reserve process.

As of August 2016, some 90 percent of TLE transactions take place in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. The fulfilment of TLE agreements assists in building partnerships and encourages economic development on reserves and in surrounding communities.

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