Surveys about Indigenous Peoples

Indigenous Services Canada (ISC) and Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada (CIRNAC), in partnership with Employment and Social Development Canada, fund surveys to help Indigenous communities and organizations, federal, provincial and territorial governments, as well as other interested parties, make informed decisions on employment, education, health, language, income, housing and mobility related to First Nations, Inuit and Métis populations.

Core results of the surveys are published online. They are accessible to everyone in Canada. Special requests are subject to access agreements.

Choose a survey:

Surveys for First Nations living off reserve, Inuit and Métis

The Indigenous Peoples Survey (IPS), formally known as the Aboriginal Peoples Survey, is led by Statistics Canada. It is an established Canadian survey about the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of Indigenous populations in Canada. Since 2006, the survey has focused on off-reserve Indigenous populations.

The IPS provides key statistics to inform policy and programming activities aimed at improving the well-being of Indigenous peoples. It is a valuable source of information for a variety of stakeholders, including Indigenous organizations, communities, service providers, researchers, governments, and the general public.

Indigenous Peoples Survey 2022


The 2022 survey focuses on children and families. It continues to provide other essential socioeconomic, demographic, cultural and health-related information. The data collection period is May 11, 2022 to March 31, 2023.

Subjects covered by the survey:

  • access to services
  • child care
  • family stability
  • trauma and discrimination
  • economic well-being
  • physical and mental health
  • education
  • sense of belonging and Indigenous languages and culture


  • IPS 2022 Questionnaire: Questionnaires in Inuktitut, Inuinnaqtun and Labrador Inuttitut were also developed for collection in the North.
  • Indigenous Peoples Survey Supporter Toolkit: Tools and resources, including social media content, web banners, hashtags and other promotional materials designed to promote and provide general information about the survey

Results and research

Preliminary results and research are expected to be released by Statistics Canada in July 2024.

Aboriginal Peoples Survey 2017


In 2017, the Aboriginal Peoples Survey focused on participation in the economy by Indigenous people aged 15 and over, while continuing to collect information about health, language, housing and mobility. Data collection for this survey began in mid-January and ended in August 2017.

Factors affecting economic participation:

  • labour mobility
  • entrepreneurship
  • post-secondary education
  • targeted skills training
  • sources of income
  • financial well-being
  • physical and mental health
  • sense of belonging


Results and research

In 2021, the Canadian Research Data Centre Network (CRDCN), in collaboration with ISC and Statistics Canada, issued a call for proposals for research projects by early-career researchers that would use data from the 2017 Aboriginal Peoples Survey. A list of project recipients and related topics of research is available on the CRDCN website.

Aboriginal Peoples Survey 2012


In 2012, the Aboriginal Peoples Survey focused on education and employment characteristics of off-reserve First Nations, Inuit and Métis people aged 6 years and older. It collected information on:

  • Aboriginal society and community
  • health and well-being
  • Indigenous Peoples, formerly Aboriginal peoples
  • work, income and spending

The survey collected unique and detailed data on education, employment and health, which is not available from any other data source. For example, although the Census of Population collects data on level of education and on major field of study, the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey addressed additional topics such as number of schools attended, exposure to Aboriginal languages, school climate and support, frequency of reading, participation in extra-curricular activities, peer influences and plans for further schooling.


Results and research

Nunavut Inuit Supplement


The Nunavut Inuit Supplement targets Inuit who are beneficiaries of the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement. It includes questions related to interest, availability and preparedness for government employment. Although the Indigenous Peoples Survey was identified as an efficient tool to deliver the Nunavut Inuit Supplement, it is a separate initiative designed to support Article 23 of the Nunavut Land Claim Agreement.

Because each Nunavut community is geographically isolated, it is crucial to collect community-level data in order to understand the social and economic realities of Inuit across Nunavut.

The Nunavut Inuit Supplement asks questions about:

  • availability and interest in government employment
  • government experience outside of Nunavut
  • reasons for ending government employment
  • perceptions of past government employment
  • previous government employment applications
  • plans to apply for government employment
  • interest in training for government employment
  • plans for further education
  • skill-relevant experiences
  • language fluency for work


To access the questionnaire about the Nunavut Inuit Supplement, refer to the other cycles questionnaire of the Indigenous Peoples Survey linked above.

Results and research

Surveys for First Nations living on reserve and in northern First Nations communities

The First Nations Information Governance Centre (FNIGC) is an incorporated non-profit organization operating with a special mandate by the Assembly of First Nations. The FNIGC is committed to improving the health and well-being of First Nations people living on reserves and in Northern communities across the country. The FNIGC started managing the on-reserve part of the Surveys on Indigenous Peoples program in 2011. The First Nations Regional Early Childhood, Education and Employment Survey, First Nations Labour and Employment Development Survey and First Nations Regional Social Survey with a Focus on Children and Families are similar to, but separate from, the Indigenous Peoples Survey, formerly the Aboriginal Peoples Survey.

First Nations Social Regional Survey on the Socioeconomic Determinants of Well-Being with a Focus on Children and Families


The survey is currently being prepared and developed, with the aim to start collecting data in 2024 and to conclude collection in 2025.

This new national survey will focus on children and families, aim to provide relevant and valuable data to support policy and program development and inform decision-making to reflect the current needs of First Nations communities. It will provide an opportunity to examine trends in social and economic well-being in First Nations communities over time.

Results from this survey will provide evidence to central agencies and support sustainable program and community development in federal budget procurement cycles. By providing information on socioeconomic determinants as they relate to individual and collective well-being outcomes, strategic investments can then target needs.


The First Nations Regional Social Survey questionnaire is currently being developed by the FNIGC and its regional partners.

Results and research

Preliminary results and research are expected to be released by the FNIGC in 2026.

First Nations Labour and Economic Development Survey


The First Nations Labour and Employment Development Survey is a cross-sectional survey of First Nations youth (15 to 17 years) and adults (18 to 64 years) living on First Nations reserves and in Northern communities. This survey began in 2019 and focuses on First Nations participation in the economy, including :

  • employment
  • traditional activities
  • education
  • skills and training
  • workplace well-being
  • knowledge of First Nations languages
  • household composition

The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the First Nations Labour and Employment Development Survey were significant. While efforts were made to collect data using modified strategies, not enough was collected to create a nationally representative dataset. As a result, inferences could not be drawn about the labour- and employment-related information of First Nations on reserves across Canada. However, a number of regions were able to collect sufficient data to support regional analysis and reporting. These regions included Nova Scotia, Quebec, Ontario, the Northwest Territories and Yukon.


The First Nations Labour and Employment Development Survey questionnaire will soon be available on the FNIGC website.

Results and research

Results have not been published by the FNIGC.

First Nations Regional Early Childhood, Education and Employment Survey


The First Nations Regional Early Childhood, Education and Employment Survey marked the first time data had ever been collected for First Nations populations on reserves and in Northern communities. As such, the baseline data collected through the survey provides valuable information and identifies key indicators of demographic and socio-economic well-being.

The survey was created to address a long-standing data gap that existed around early childhood (0 to 11 years old) education and development, youth (12 to 17 years old) employment and education, adult (18 years and older) employment and education, and labour-market conditions in First Nations communities. Data collection for the survey began in fall 2013 and the full report was released in July 2016.

The survey included information on:

  • child care
  • nurturing
  • food security
  • education
  • school attendance, support and climate
  • occupation
  • job skills
  • well-being


FNIGC Data Online is an easy-to-use tool that offers access to published data from the FNIGC. FNIGC Data Online gives users the ability to generate charts, tables and graphs based on the FNIGC’s robust datasets about First Nations people living on reserves and in Northern communities, at no cost.

The First Nations Regional Early Childhood, Education and Employment Survey questionnaire will soon be available on the FNIGC website.

Results and research

Related links

To learn more about the Indigenous Peoples Survey or get data, please contact Statistics Canada general enquiries and comments:

To learn more about the surveys run by the FNIGC or get data, contact the FNIGC:

To provide feedback or learn more about surveys and data about Indigenous Peoples, contact the Departmental Centre of Inquiries:

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